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Mastered in machining, complete knowledge of parts machining accuracy

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Mastered in machining, complete knowledge of parts machining accuracy

  • Time of issue:2022-03-01 15:51

Mastered in machining, complete knowledge of parts machining accuracy

  • Time of issue:2022-03-01 15:51
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Machining accuracy is the degree to which the actual size, shape and position of the surface of the machined part match the geometric parameters that meet the requirements of the engineering drawing. The ideal geometric parameter, for size, is the average size. For surface geometry , this can be a circle, cylinder, plane, cone, line, etc. The mutual position between surfaces includes parallel, perpendicular, coaxial, symmetrical, etc. The deviation between the actual geometric parameters and the ideal geometric parameters of machin ed parts are called machining error.

1. The concept of machining precision

Machining precision is mainly used for product production level, and both machining precision and machining error are terms for evaluating the geometric parameters of the machined surface. Machining accuracy is measured by tolerance grade, the smaller the grade value, the higher the precision . The processing error is represented by numbers, the larger the number, the greater the error. High machining accuracy and small machining error, and vice versa.

There are 20 tolerance classes from IT01, IT0, IT1, IT2, IT3 to IT18. IT01 is for parts with high machining accuracy, IT18 is for parts with low machining accuracy, and usually IT7 and IT8 are at the middle level of machining accuracy.

The actual parameters obtained by the processing method are not accurate. In the function of parts, as long as the machining error is within the tolerance range required by the part drawing, it is considered to be the guarantee of machining accuracy.

The quality of the machining machine depends on the processing quality of the parts and the assembly quality of the machine. The processing quality of the parts is composed of two parts: the processing accuracy and the surface quality of the parts.

Machining accuracy refers to the degree of matching between the actual geometric parameters (size, shape and position) and the ideal geometric parameters after machining the part. The difference between them is called processing error. The size of the machining error reflects the level of machining accuracy. The larger the error, the lower the machining accuracy, and the smaller the error, the higher the machining accuracy.

2. Machining accuracy of relevant content

(1) Dimensional accuracy

Indicates the extent to which the actual size of the machined part coincides with the center of the tolerance zone of the part size.

(2) Geometric accuracy

Indicates how well the actual geometry of the surface of the machined part matches the ideal geometry.

(3) Position accuracy

Indicates the difference in actual positional accuracy between machined surfaces.

(4) Mutual relationship

Generally, when designing mechanical parts and specifying the machining accuracy of parts, please note that the geometric error is controlled within the position tolerance, and the position error is smaller than the size tolerance. That is to say, geometric accuracy requirements are higher than positional accuracy requirements, and positional accuracy requirements are higher than dimensional accuracy requirements for precision parts or important surfaces of parts.

3. Adjustment method.

(1) Adjust the process system

(2) Machine tool error reduction

(3) Reduce drive chain transmission errors

(4) Reduce tool wear

(5) Reduce the stress and deformation of the process system

(6) Reduce the thermal deformation of the process system

(7) Reduce residual stress

4. The reasons for the impact.

(1) Processing principle error

The machining principle error is the error of machining with a rough blade profile or a rough transmission relationship. Processing principle errors mostly occur in the processing of threads, gears, and compound surfaces. Rough machining is generally used in machining to improve productivity and economy on the premise that the theoretical error meets the machining accuracy requirements.

(2) Adjustment error

The adjustment error of the machine is the error caused by inaccurate adjustment.

(3) machine failure

Machine error refers to the manufacturing error, installation error and wear of the machine. It mainly includes the guidance error of the machine tool guide rail, the rotation error of the machine tool spindle, and the transmission error of the machine tool transmission chain.

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